STANDARD of breed CAUCASIAN SHEPHERD DOG
of breed CAUCASIAN SHEPHERD DOG
GENERAL APPERANCE: The shepherd dogs from the
Caucasus are dogs size to the average and large size dogs, of robust even
coarse constitution; by nature, they are aggressive and distrustful of
strangers. To these peculiarities must be added the endurance, lack of
demands and the faculty of adaptation to varied thermal and climatic conditions,
allowing the use of the Caucasian Shepherd dog in nearly all the regions
of the former Soviet Union.
The principal regions of penetration of the Caucasian Sheepdog are the
Federal Republics of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Kabardino-Balkaria,
Dagestan and Kalmoukia, the regions of the North Caucasus steppes and
the surroundings areas of Astrakhan. In the regions of the Transcaucasus
the dogs are of a more bulky type of constitution, whereas in the steppes
regions they are lighter, higher on the legs and often short-haired.
BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: Type of great alert activity,
strong - balanced - calm. The reactions of defense which manifest themselves
in active form, are well developed.
An aggressive disposition and distrust towards strangers are characteristic.
TYPE OF CONSTITUTION: Robust, even coarse, with
a massive bone structure and strong musculature. Skin is Thick but elastic.
INDEX OF BONE STRUCTURE: (Proportion of the
perimeter of the pastern vs. the height at the withers) = Males 21-22;
INDEX OF THE FORMAT: The proportion of the length
of the body vs. the height at the withers is 100-108.
SEXUAL TYPE: Well accentuated. The males are
stronger and more massive. The females are a bit smaller in size, of a
little lighter constitution.
Skull: Massive with a board skull and strongly
developed zygomatic arches. Broad forehead, flat, divided in two halves
by a slight furrow.
Stop: The stop is not clearly marked.
Nose: The nose is strong, broad, black. In the
white and the light straw colored dogs, a brown (chestnut) colored nose
Muzzle: The muzzle is shorter than the length
of the skull, only lightly tapered.
Lips: Strong lips, but lean and fitting tightly.
Teeth: White, strong, well developed, close together,
not showing gaps. Incisors aligned at the base - Scissor bite.
Eyes: Dark, small, oval shaped, deep set.
Ears: Hanging set high, cropped short.
NECK: Powerful, short. Carried quite low so
as to form an angle of 300 - 400 grad in relation
to the line of the back.
Withers: broad, muscular, well detached above
Back: Broad, straight, muscled.
Loin: Short, broad, slightly arched.
Rump: Broad, muscled, set almost horizontal.
Chest: Broad, deep, slightly rounded in shape.
Lower line of chest is at elbow level or lower.
Belly (abdomen): Moderately tucked up.
TAIL: High set, hanging down, reaching the hock.
In shape of sickle, hook or ring. Docked tails are admitted.
FOREQUARTERS: Seen from the front: straight
and parallel. Angle of the scapular-humeral articulation about 100 grad.
Forearm: Short, strong, long without excess.
Pastern: Short, strong, placed on the vertical
or with an insignificant inclination.
Length of the legs up to the elbows a little superior to the half of the
height at the withers. Index of height of the forequarters (proportion
of the height of the forequarters from the point of the elbow to the ground
vs. height at the withers) = 50-54.
HINDOQUARTERS: Seen from the back: straight
and parallel; in profile: slightly open at level of stifle articulation.
Stifles: Strong, broad, angle slightly open.
Metatarsal: Thick, placed vertically.
Hindquarters not sloping from front to back. The vertical line starting
from the ischiatic tuberosity must pass in the centre of the hockjoint
and of the hock.
FEET: (front and hind feet).
Big, oval shaped, compact and tight.
GAIT/MOVEMENT: Free swinging stride; usually
balanced. The characteristic gait is a short trot, which in case of acceleration
usually turns into a slightly heavy gallop. On the move the legs must
move in straight line, the forelegs slightly converging towards the median
line; the articulations of the fore-and hindquarters function with ease;
the back and the loins work smoothly. The withers and the rump should
remain at the same level during the trot.
HAIR: Straight hair, coarse, with a strongly
developed undercoat of a lighter color. On the head and front part of
the limbs, hair shorter and lying well flat against body. We distinguish
3 groups according to the coat:
- Long-haired: top coat longer. The long hairs on the neck form a ruff,
on the rear parts of the legs fringes and culottes. The thick coat,
which covers the whole of the tail, makes it thick and bushy.
- Short-haired: Covered with a thick coat, relatively short, without
a ruff, without fringes, without culottes nor feathering on the tail.
- Intermediate type: long-haired but without ruff, fringes, culottes
COLOUR: Banded hair of grey, with varied shades,
usually light with a tendency towards ginger (rusty), straw color, white,
reddish brown, brindle and also pied coat and scattered with patches.
Height at the withers: For the males, not less
than 65 sm.; for the females, not less than 62 sm.
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points
should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault
should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
- Constitution a little weak of frail.
- Slight deviation in relation of the format indicated.
- Lack of gameness and energy, lack of distrust towards strangers.
- Slight deviation in relation to sexual type. Females of male type.
- Head insufficiently broad and massive.
- Forehead too bulding, transition from forehead to muzzle (stop) abrupt
or too lightly marked.
- Muzzle short or elongated.
- Lips soft, loosely-hanging.
- Teeth showing abnormal wear in relation to age. Presence of broken
teeth which do not harm the occlusion (bite). Absence of at most two
first premolars, or absence of one the first and one of the second premolars.
Slight yellowing of the teeth.
- Light eyes, lower eyelids slightly drooping. Presence of milky white
spots on the cornea.
- Ears set low, not cropped.
- Neck long, lacking power.
- Weakly developed withers, standing out insufficiently above the topline
of the back.
- Soft back, arched or narrow.
- Longish loin, straight or too arched.
- Rump insufficiently muscular or slightly sloping.
- Chest slightly flattened. The lower region of the chest not quite
reaching the elbow line (insufficiently let down).
- Belly too tucked up or too bulky (profile convex).
- Forequarters: Small deviations in relation to angles of shoulder articulations,
forearm slightly shortened or lengthtened, slight deviation of elbows,
slight toeing out, pastern too oblique.
- Hindquarters: Seen from behind: small deviation in relation to the
parallelism (slight closeness or spreading of the hocks). Legs a little
wide apart or a little close together, hindquarters too straight, hindquarters
- Feet: Soft or of elongated shape. Dewclaws present.
- Movement: Deviations in relation to the normal movement (the dog brings
the legs in or puts them out). The articulations do not function with
sufficient ease. Lack of suppleness of back and loins movement. Rump
raised during the trotting movement). Slight side-to-side swinging of
the rump (rolling of the hindquarters).
- Constitution with strongly marked weakness or frailness.
- Important deviation in relation to the format indicated.
- Timid dog, strongly marked indifference; lack of aggressiveness.
- Strong deviations in relation to sexual type. Males of female type.
- Light head, narrow, with pointed muzzle, not in proportion with the
general type of construction, turned up muzzle.
- Teeth small, scattered (wide apart), insufficiently developed.
Incisors implanted in regular line. Teeth with badly damaged enamel.
- Eyes of different colours; lower eyelids drooping, showing part of
- Back sagging or very arched.
- Loin Long, sagging or too curved.
- Rump narrow, short or distinctly falling away.
Chest flat, narrow, insufficiently developed.
- Forequarters: Straight shoulders or angle of shoulder too closed,
forearm crooked or thin, marked deviation of elbows, very weak pastern,
distinctly toeing out, or both feet pidgeon - toed (turned in).
- Hindquarters: Strongly marked deviations in relation to the parallelism.
Hindquarters excessively straight. Legs bowed. Hindquarters very overbuilt.
- Feet very splayed or flat.
- Soft coat, wavy, without undercoat.
- Black, black with ginger (rusty) patches, chestnut in varied combinations.
- Restricted movement, heavy. Rump very much overbuilt, when trotting,
in relation to the withers. Marked vertical movement of the rump. Ambling
- For the males a height at the withers less than 65 sm; for the females,
less than 62 sm.
- All deviations in relation to the correct scissor bite.
- Absence of one of the canines or one the incisors; absence of one
of the third or fourth premolars or of one molar.
- Black and brown (chestnut) colour of the coat.
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently
normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum